防禦性悲觀(Defensive Pessimism) - Wise Library 1985

防禦性悲觀(Defensive Pessimism) - Wise Library 1985

Norem 和 Cantor于1986年提出了防禦性悲觀(Defensive Pessimism)主張「防禦性悲觀思維者」, 最終工作表現與常帶著積極思維的樂觀主義者差距不大。

 

防禦性悲觀的目的

避免表現與預期的反差過大所造成的不愉快,優點在於未雨綢繆做好做壞的打算,好消除内心對未知與挫敗的焦慮或恐懼。Alloy與Abramson提出的抑鬱寫實假設(Depressive Realism Hypothesis):比樂觀主義者,防禦性悲觀的人決策上會更爲謹慎!

 

當然,消極悲觀指數太高只會成為導致失敗的導因之一,喪失努力的動力,自然無法盡全力,而使結果不佳。

 

司馬儀:防禦性悲觀(Defensive Pessimism)是盡早讓自己排演預設評估”是否有能力接受最壞的情況”,像是跟自己說:追求十年的____最後無法____也沒有關係諸如此類!不是不盡力,而是在追求想要的人事物的同時,試著讓自己一路抱持一種豁達的心態,好讓自己更務實更貼近現實的各種非預期的狀況!

 

 

相關書籍

諾蘭博士(Julie Norem)著作《我悲觀,但我成功:負面思考的正面威力》(The Positive Power of Negative Thinking: Using Defensive Pessimism to Manage Anxiety and Perform at Your Peak)。

 

You can always turn no into yes, and usually make people happy, but it’s a lot harder – sometimes too late – to change yes to no.”― Bob Knight, The Power of Negative Thinking: An Unconventional Approach to Achieving Positive Results

 

What vulnerabilities do we have and what can we do to minimize them, to get around them, to survive them—and give ourselves a better chance to win?”― Bob Knight, The Power of Negative Thinking: An Unconventional Approach to Achieving Positive Results

 

“ If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting, too.”― Bob Knight, The Power of Negative Thinking: An Unconventional Approach to Achieving Positive Results

 

“Forgetting the last victory and preparing for the next one…The first job that we have today is putting yesterday aside to be remembered later. (Tony LaRussa, World Series Champion 2011)”― Bob Knight, The Power of Negative Thinking: An Unconventional Approach to Achieving Positive Results

 

 

參考文獻

Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1979). Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: Sadder but wiser?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(4), 441-485. 10.1037//0096-3445.108.4.441

Lang, F. R., Weiss, D., Gerstorf, D., & Wagner, G. G. (2013). Forecasting life satisfaction across adulthood: Benefits of seeing a dark future?. Psychology and Aging, 28(1), 249-261. doi: 10.1037/a0030797

Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986). Anticipatory and post hoc cushioning strategies: Optimism and defensive pessimism in “risky” situations. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10(3), 347-362. doi: 10.1007/BF01173471

Norem, J. K., & Cantor, N. (1986). Defensive pessimism: Harnessing anxiety as motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1208-1217. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1208

The Power of Pessimism: Science Reveals the Hidden Virtues in Negative Thinking

The benefits of being a pessimist: Expecting the worst can make you focus on the outcome of a goal and perform better, claims scientist

 

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